Electronic signals used in traditional instrumentation circuits are either DC or low-frequency AC in nature. Measurement and control values are represented in analog form by these signals, usually by the magnitude of the electronic signal (how many volts, how many milliamps, etc.). Modern electronic instruments, however, often communicate process and control data in digital rather than analog form. This digital data takes the form of high-frequency voltage and/or current pulses along the instrument conductors. The most capable fieldbus instruments do away with analog signaling entirely, communicating all data in digital form at relatively high speeds.
If the time period of a voltage or current pulse is less than the time required for the signal to travel down the length of the cable (at nearly the speed of light!), very interesting effects may occur. When a pulse propagates down a two-wire cable and reaches the end of that cable, the energy contained by that pulse must be absorbed by the receiving circuit or else be reflected back down the cable. To be honest, this happens in all circuits no matter how long or brief the pulses may be, but the effects of a “reflected” pulse only become apparent when the pulse time is short compared to the signal propagation time. In such short-pulse applications, it is customary to refer to the cable as a transmission line, and to regard it as a circuit component with its own characteristics (namely, a continuous impedance as “seen” by the traveling pulse).
This problem has a familiar analogy: an “echo” in a room. If you step into a large room with hard wall, floor, and ceiling surfaces, you will immediately notice echoes resulting from any sound you make. Holding a conversation in such a room can be quite difficult, as the echoed sounds superimpose upon the most recently-spoken sounds, making it difficult to discern what is being said. The larger the room, the longer the echo delay, and the greater the conversational confusion. Echoes happen in small rooms, too, but they are generally too short to be of any concern. If the reflected sound(s) return quickly enough after being spoken, the time delay between the spoken (incident) sound and the echo (reflected) sound will be too short to notice, and conversation will proceed unhindered.
We may address the “echo” problem in two entirely different ways. One way is to eliminate the echoes entirely by adding sound-deadening coverings (carpet, acoustic ceiling tiles) and/or objects (sofas, chairs, pillows) to the room. Another way to address the problem of echoes interrupting a conversation is to slow down the rate of speech. If the words are spoken slowly enough, the time delay of the echoes will be relatively short compared to the period of each spoken sound, and conversation may proceed without interference.
Both the problem of and the solutions for reflected signals in electrical cables follow the same patterns as the problem of and solutions for sonic echoes in a hard-surfaced room. If an electronic circuit receiving pulses sent along a cable receives both the incident pulse and an echo (reflected pulse) with a significant time delay separating those two pulses, the digital “conversation” will be impeded in the same manner that a verbal conversation between two or more people is impeded by echoes in a room. We may address this problem either by eliminating the reflected pulses entirely (by ensuring all the pulse energy is absorbed by an appropriate load placed at the cable’s end) or by slowing down the data transfer rate (i.e. longer pulses, lower frequencies) so that the reflected and incident pulse signals virtually overlap one another at the receiver.
High-speed “fieldbus” instrument networks apply the former solution (eliminate reflections) while the legacy HART instrument signal standard apply the latter (slow data rate). Reflections are eliminated in high-speed data networks by ensuring the two furthest cable ends are both “terminated” by a resistance value of the proper size (matching the characteristic impedance of the cable). The designers of the HART analog-digital hybrid standard chose to use slow data rates instead, so their instruments would function adequately on legacy signal cables where the characteristic impedance is not standardized.
The potential for reflected pulses in high-speed fieldbus cabling is a cause for concern among instrument technicians, because it represents a new phenomenon capable of creating faults in an instrument system. No longer is it sufficient to have tight connections, clean wire ends, good insulation, and proper shielding for a signal cable to faithfully convey a 4-20 mA DC instrument signal from one device to another. Now the technician must ensure proper termination and the absence of any discontinuities (sharp bends or crimps) along the cable’s entire length, in addition to all the traditional criteria, in order to faithfully convey a digital fieldbus signal from one device to another.
Signal reflection problems may be investigated using a diagnostic instrument known as a timedomain reflectometer, or TDR. These devices are a combination of pulse generator and digital-storage oscilloscope, generating brief electrical pulses and analyzing the returned (echoed) signals at one end of a cable. If a TDR is used to record the pulse “signature” of a newly-installed cable, that data may be compared to future TDR measurements on the same cable to detect cable degradation or wiring changes.