What is SCADA ? How does SCADA Works ?

S Bharadwaj Reddy
SCADA stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition but it is a term often used for data collection and presentation. What is SCADA ? SCADA is normally a software package

Normally-open and Normally-closed Switch Contacts

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the definition of a sensor’s normal status. Electrical switch contacts are typically classified as either normally-open or normally-closed, referring to the open

Failsafe Wiring Practices

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Failsafe wiring practice is one of those topics that separates control system designers and electricians from other technical specialties. This is one of the areas that show up as problems

PLC Analog Input Card Resolution Effects on Accuracy

S Bharadwaj Reddy
An instrument’s accuracy is limited by its precision. An instrument’s precision is determined by making minute variations in the measured process variable (e.g., pressure, temperature) and then monitoring the instrument’s

PLC Analog Input Conversion Formula

S Bharadwaj Reddy
For any unit conversion on any PLC, you can use four function math with the following for PLC Analog Input Conversion Formula, which assumes integer math, as follows : PLC

PLC Digital Signals Wiring Techniques

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Ina process plant, on/off control is done through the PLC or DCS. The below Figure is an overview of one discrete/digital (on/off) circuit, showing the entire process from the power supply

PLC Analog Signals Wiring Techniques

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Unlike the discrete/digital (on/off) circuit, analog signals vary across a range of voltage or current. Taking the same vessel described previously in Digital wiring example, how would the wiring change

PLC Problems Troubleshooting

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Troubleshooting PLCs can be started by checking the healthiness status of CPU, I/O Modules, Fuse Blow-out and different PLC Failure reasons including wiring, field transmitters healthiness status or transmitter configuration,

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