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Control Systems Theory

PID Controller Action : Directing Acting & Reverse Acting

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Air to open/close valves and direction of control action Control valves come in two sorts: air to open; and air to close. Air to open valves are normally held closed by the

Difference between Fieldbus, Profibus and HART Protocols

S Bharadwaj Reddy
The method of representing, encoding, and transmitting the data is called the protocol. At the field level, the dominant protocols for process instruments are HART, FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 and PROFIBUS

Certified Control Systems Technician (CCST) Questions

S Bharadwaj Reddy
The International Society of Automation (ISA) provides sample Certified Control Systems Technician (CCST) Exam Questions and answers for engineers who are planning to get certification from ISA. Certified Control Systems

What is Instrument Hook Up Diagram ?

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Instrument Hook Up Diagram is also called Installation drawing, specifies the scope of work between Mechanical and Instrumentation departments. It is a detailed drawing showing typical installation of an instrument

How-to Create Instrument Loop Diagram (ILD) ?

S Bharadwaj Reddy
How to create a instrumentation loop drawing, say for instrument air vessel ? Piping and Instrumentation (P&ID) diagram shows the several instrumentation loops connected with particular equipment. P&ID shows signal path

PLC Connection between Instrument, Junction Box, Marshalling & System Cabinet

S Bharadwaj Reddy
A PLC connection represents the signal flow starting from the field transmitters, junction box, marshalling cabinet, system cabinet and Human-Machine Interface for the operator graphic display. PLC Connection between Instrument,

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