Instrument Percent of Span Error

An important part of performing instrument calibration is determining the extent of an instrument’s error. Error is usually measured in

4-20mA Formulas and Examples

4-20 mA transmitter current output can be converted to the voltage within a specified range, from 0 to a maximal amplitude Vmax,

PLC Problems Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting PLCs can be started by checking the healthiness status of CPU, I/O Modules, Fuse Blow-out and different PLC Failure

PLC Analog Input Scaling

An Allen-Bradley SLC500 programmable logic controller (PLC) uses a 16-bit analog-to-digital converter ( in its model 1746-NI4 ) in analog