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Solenoid Valve’s Energized or De-energized State ?

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Solenoid valves may be used in such a way that they spend most of their time de-energized, energizing only for brief periods of time when some special function is required.

What is a 4-way Solenoid Valve ?

S Bharadwaj Reddy
When a pneumatic actuator requires air pressure applied to two different ports in order to move two different directions (such as the case for cylinders lacking a return spring), the

What is a 2-way Solenoid Valve ?

S Bharadwaj Reddy
2-way solenoid valves operate in a manner analogous to single-pole single-throw (SPST) electrical switches: with only one path for flow. Solenoid valve symbols often appear identical to fluid power valve

Basics of AC Induction Motors

S Bharadwaj Reddy
The basic principle of an AC induction motor is that one or more out-of-phase AC (sinusoidal) currents energize sets of electromagnet coils (called stator coils or windings) arranged around the

Synchronous Counters

S Bharadwaj Reddy
A synchronous counter, in contrast to an asynchronous counter, is one whose output bits change state simultaneously, with no ripple. The only way we can build such a counter circuit from J-K flip-flops is

Monostable Multivibrators

S Bharadwaj Reddy
We’ve already seen one example of a monostable multivibrator in use: the pulse detector used within the circuitry of flip-flops, to enable the latch portion for a brief time when

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