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Instrumentation Engineering Basics

4-20 mA Transmitter Wiring Types : 2-Wire, 3-Wire, 4-Wire

S Bharadwaj Reddy
4-20 mA Transmitter Wiring Types Transmitters are available with a wide variety of signal outputs. The 4-20mA analogue signal is by far the most commonly used in industrial applications. Several

How a 4-20mA Transmitter Works ?

S Bharadwaj Reddy
4-20mA Transmitter Basics : A sensor is an input device that provides a usable output in response to the input measurand. A sensor is also commonly called a sensing element, primary

Loop Checking of 4-20mA/HART Transmitters

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Loop Checking of 4-20 mA/HART Based Transmitters: There are two ways to loop check a 4-20 mA/HART transmitter current loop: Inject physical sensor input Force output current A third way

Basics of Loop Checks

S Bharadwaj Reddy
The term “loop” can refer to the entire “control loop” from primary element (sensor) through the transmitter, and controller, to the valve positioner, and the final control element (valve). The

Transmitters 4-20mA Current Failure Alarm Limits

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Transmitters Failure Mode Alarm 4-20 mA instrumentation and controls usually support a signal range slightly below 4 mA and above 20 mA. For transmitters, current values below 4 mA and above

Sink or Source? PNP or NPN? Normally Open or Normally Closed?

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Sink or source? PNP or NPN? Normally Open or Normally Closed? Input v. output? When it comes to mastering the language of electronics, nothing causes more confusion than the “sink”

Troubleshooting a 4-20mA Current loop

S Bharadwaj Reddy
The basic layout of every 4-20mA loop consists of a power supply, a transmitter, and passive loop devices. The supply produces the energy to run the loop. The transmitter controls

What is an O-Ring?

S Bharadwaj Reddy
What is an O-Ring? An O-ring is a torus, or doughnut-shaped ring, generally molded from an elastomer, although O-rings are also made from PTFE and other thermoplastic materials, as well

How to Do Loop Checks During Plant Pre-Commissioning

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Basic Guide lines to be followed during DCS Loop Checks (Follow P&ID and Inst. Index): 1. Location of the instrument Tag no. to be checked (As per P&ID) 2. Tag

How to Do Logic Checks During Plant Pre-Commissioning

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Basic Guidelines to be followed during Logic Checks (Follow Cause & Effect, Control Narrative, P&ID and Latest Alarm & Trip Schedule): 1. Understand the Cause & Effect Matrix, if any

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