Faults within a DC circuit will cause various effects, depending upon the nature of the fault. An understanding of the effects of these faults is necessary to fully understand DC circuit operation.
Parallel Short Circuit
When a parallel circuit becomes short circuited, the same effect occurs as in a series circuit: there is a sudden and very large increase in circuit current (Figure 57).
Figure 57 : Shorted Parallel Circuit
Parallel circuits are more likely than series circuits to develop damaging short circuits. This is because each load is connected directly across the power source. If any of the load becomes shorted, the resistance between the power source terminals is practically zero. If a series load becomes shorted, the resistance of the other loads keeps the circuit resistance from dropping to zero.