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What is a Transducer ?


Transducers play an important role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process should be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another.

Transducer is a device which converts one form of energy into another form i.e,. the given non-electrical energy is converted into an electrical energy.

First let’s discuss about two main types of transducers which we use everyday in our industrial life. They are

Types of transducers:

There are two types of transducers, they are:

  1. Active transducers
  2. Passive transducers

Active transducers:

Active transducer is a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electrical energy by itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and more are the best examples of the transducers

Passive transducers:

Passive transducer is a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electrical energy by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are the examples for the Passive transducers.

Difference Between Active & Passive Transducer

The classification of transducers are made from the following basis:

Classification of transducers:

1. Based on the physical phenomenon,

  • Primary transducer
  • Secondary transducer

2. Based on the power type Classification,

  • Active transducer
  • Passive transducer

3. Based on the type of output the classification of transducers are made,

  • Analog transducer
  • Digital transducer

4. Based on the electrical phenomenon is a best Classification of Trasnducer,

  • Resistive transducer
  • Capacitive transducer
  • Inductive transducer
  • Photoelectric transducer
  • Photovoltaic transducer

5. Based on the non-electrical phenomenon Classification of transducer,

  • Linear displacement
  • Rotary displacement

6. Based on the transduction phenomenon,

  • Transducer
  • Inverse transducer.

Factor to be considered while selecting transducer:

• It should have high input impedance and low output impedance, to avoid loading effect.
• It should have good resolution over is entire selected range.
• It must be highly sensitive to desired signal and insensitive to unwanted signal.
• Preferably small in size.
• It should be able to work n corrosive environment.
• It should be able to withstand pressure, shocks, vibrations etc..
• It must have high degree of accuracy and repeatability.
• Selected transducer must be free from errors.

Requirements of a good transducers

• Smaller in size and weight.
• High sensitivity.
• Ability to withstand environmental conditions.
• Low cost.

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