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Instrumentation Engineering Animations

Microwave Barrier Level Switch Working Principle

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Non-contact point level detection in bulk solids In many cases where contact methods are limited, microwave barriers are the appropriate solution. They avoid jamming, indicate point levels, solve positioning and

Microwave Flow Sensor Working Principle

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Microwave Flow Detector is a Non-contact Flow Sensor which emits the microwaves of 2.4GHz from the tip of its sensor. Reflected from the surface of powders and solids traveling in

How a Transistor Switch Works

S Bharadwaj Reddy
The transistor in Figure is used as a switch to turn the LED on and off. For example, a square wave input voltage with a period of 2 s is applied

Relay Principle & its Types

S Bharadwaj Reddy
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are

Radiometric level measurement Working Principle

S Bharadwaj Reddy
The radiometric level measurements work non-contacting and non-intrusive. As the components are mounted on the outer wall, they do not come into contact with the measured material and are therefore

Ultrasonic FlowMeters Working Principle

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Ultrasonic flowmeters operate using the transit-time differential method. The Transit-time differential measurement is based on a simple physical fact. Imagine two canoes crossing a river on the same diagonal line,

Stepper Motor Working Principle

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Stepper motors are DC motors that move in discrete steps. They have multiple coils that are organized in groups called “phases”. By energizing each phase in sequence, the motor will

TOC Analyzer Working Principle

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Total Organic Carbon (TOC) measurement is commonly used to determine the degree of organic contamination in water. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) is an indirect measure of organic molecules present in

Spring and Diaphragm Pneumatic Actuators

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Spring and diaphragm pneumatic actuators can be “direct-acting”, meaning that air to the diaphragm casing pushes the actuator stem downward. This “air-to-close” action compresses the spring, which in turn pushes

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