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Instrumentation Engineering Basics

Troubleshooting a 4-20mA Current loop

S Bharadwaj Reddy
The basic layout of every 4-20mA loop consists of a power supply, a transmitter, and passive loop devices. The supply produces the energy to run the loop. The transmitter controls...

What is an O-Ring?

S Bharadwaj Reddy
What is an O-Ring? An O-ring is a torus, or doughnut-shaped ring, generally molded from an elastomer, although O-rings are also made from PTFE and other thermoplastic materials, as well...

How to Do Loop Checks During Plant Pre-Commissioning

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Basic Guide lines to be followed during DCS Loop Checks (Follow P&ID and Instrument Index): 1. Location of the instrument Tag no. to be checked (As per P&ID) 2. Tag...

How to Do Logic Checks During Plant Pre-Commissioning

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Basic Guidelines to be followed during Logic Checks (Follow Cause & Effect, Control Narrative, P&ID and Latest Alarm & Trip Schedule): 1. Understand the Cause & Effect Matrix, if any...

Why Use a Current Loop?

S Bharadwaj Reddy
A Little Bit of History Before the advent of electronic circuitry, process control was a wholly mechanical endeavor. Facilities used pneumatic control signals where controllers were powered by varying pressures...

Basics of 4-20mA Current Loop

S Bharadwaj Reddy
The 4-20 mA current loop is a very robust sensor signaling standard.  Current loops are ideal for data transmission because of their inherent insensitivity to electrical noise. In a 4-20...

Basics of 4 to 20 mA analog Signals

S Bharadwaj Reddy
The  most  popular  form of signal transmission  used in modern  industrial  instrumentation  systems is the 4 to 20 milliamp DC standard. This is an analog signal standard, meaning that the...

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