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Instrumentation Engineering Basics

How to Do Logic Checks During Plant Pre-Commissioning

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Basic Guidelines to be followed during Logic Checks (Follow Cause & Effect, Control Narrative, P&ID and Latest Alarm & Trip Schedule): 1. Understand the Cause & Effect Matrix, if any

Why Use a Current Loop?

S Bharadwaj Reddy
A Little Bit of History Before the advent of electronic circuitry, process control was a wholly mechanical endeavor. Facilities used pneumatic control signals where controllers were powered by varying pressures

Basics of 4-20mA Current Loop

S Bharadwaj Reddy
The 4-20 mA current loop is a very robust sensor signaling standard.  Current loops are ideal for data transmission because of their inherent insensitivity to electrical noise. In a 4-20

Basics of 4 to 20 mA analog Signals

S Bharadwaj Reddy
The  most  popular  form of signal transmission  used in modern  industrial  instrumentation  systems is the 4 to 20 milliamp DC standard. This is an analog signal standard, meaning that the

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