How Twisted Wire Cables Eliminates Noise Voltage

Inductive Coupling Effects

Magnetic fields, unlike electric fields, are exceedingly difficult to completely shield. Magnetic flux lines do not terminate, but rather loop.

Capacitive Field Effects on Conductors-4

Capacitive Coupling Effects

The fundamental principle invoked in shielding signal conductor(s) from external electric fields is that no substantial electric field can exist


What is DIN rail ?

DIN stands for “Deutsches Institut fur Normung”, which means “German Institute for Standardization.” In the 1970’s the name DIN became the

Process Alarms Types

Process Switches and Alarms

Another type of instrument commonly seen in measurement and control systems is the process switches. The purpose of a switch

Chart Recorders

What is a Recorder ?

Another common “auxiliary” instrument is the recorder (sometimes specifically referred to as a chart recorder or a trend recorder ),

Transmitter Indicators

What is Indicator ?

One common “auxiliary” instrument is the indicator, the purpose of which is to provide a human readable indication of an

Water Treatment Control System

Waste Water Control System

The final step in treating waste water before releasing it into the natural environment is to kill any harmful microorganisms