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Working of NPN Transistor

S Bharadwaj Reddy
The emitter-base junction of a transistor is forward biased whereas collector-base junction is reverse biased. If for a moment, we ignore the presence of emitter-base junction, then practically (Note 1) no current...

Basics of Voltage Regulators

S Bharadwaj Reddy
While filters can reduce the ripple from power supplies to a low value, the most effective approach is a combination of a capacitor-input filter used with a voltage regulator. A voltage regulator...

Ripple Voltage in Rectifiers

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Ripple Voltage As you have seen, the capacitor quickly charges at the beginning of a cycle and slowly discharges through RL after the positive peak of the input voltage (when the diode...

Capacitor Filter Working Principle

S Bharadwaj Reddy
A half-wave rectifier with a capacitor-input filter is shown in Below Figure. The filter is simply a capacitor connected from the rectifier output to ground. RL represents the equivalent resistance of...

Peak Inverse Voltage of Center Tap Rectifier

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Peak Inverse Voltage Each diode in the full-wave rectifier is alternately forward-biased and then reverse-biased. The maximum reverse voltage that each diode must withstand is the peak secondary voltage Vp(sec). This is...

Center Tapped Full Wave Rectifier Operation

S Bharadwaj Reddy
A center-tapped rectifier is a type of full-wave rectifier that uses two diodes connected to the secondary of a center-tapped transformer, as shown in Below Figure. The input voltage is coupled through...

Full Wave Rectifier

S Bharadwaj Reddy
A full-wave rectifier allows unidirectional (one-way) current through the load during the entire 360° of the input cycle, whereas a half-wave rectifier allows current through the load only during one-half of the...

VI Characteristic of a Diode

S Bharadwaj Reddy
As we know, forward bias produces current through a diode and reverse bias essentially prevents current, except for a negligible reverse current. Reverse bias prevents current as long as the reverse-bias...

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