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Electronic Basics

Troubleshooting a Power Supply Circuit

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Troubleshooting is the application of logical thinking combined with a thorough knowledge of circuit or system operation to identify and correct a malfunction. A systematic approach to troubleshooting consists of three steps:...

Zener Diode Voltage Regulators

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Zener Diodes can be used to produce a stabilised voltage output with low ripple under varying load current conditions. By passing a small current through the diode from a voltage...

IEC labelling for Resistors Color Code

S Bharadwaj Reddy
The IEC also defines how manufacturers should mark the values of resistors and capacitors in the standard called IEC 60062. The colours used on fixed leaded resistors are shown below:...

Testing a Transistor with a Digital Multimeter

S Bharadwaj Reddy
Several faults that can occur in the circuit and the accompanying symptoms are illustrated in Below Figure. Symptoms are shown in terms of measured voltages that are incorrect. If a...

How a Transistor Switch Works

S Bharadwaj Reddy
The transistor in Figure is used as a switch to turn the LED on and off. For example, a square wave input voltage with a period of 2 s is applied...

How to Test a Transistor using Multimeter

S Bharadwaj Reddy
An ohmmeter can be used to check the state of a transistor i.e., whether the transistor is good or not. We know that base-emitter junction of a transistor is forward...

How to Identify the Transistor Terminals

S Bharadwaj Reddy
There are three leads in a transistor viz. collector, emitter and base. When a transistor is to be connected in a circuit, it is necessary to know which terminal is...

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